Bioaccumulation; Cadmium; Quantum dots; Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy; Lemna minor L.; Toxicity;INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY; SILVER NANOPARTICLES; BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS; ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA; OXIDE NANOPARTICLES; OXIDATIVE STRESS; IN-VITRO; CADMIUM; GROWTH; CYTOTOXICITY
The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity of two different sources of cadmium, i.e. CdCl2 and Cd-based Quantum Dots (QDs), for freshwater model plant Lemna minor L. Cadmium telluride QDs were capped with two coating ligands: glutathione (GSH) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). Growth rate inhibition and final biomass inhibition of L. minor after 168-h exposure were monitored as toxicity endpoints. Dose-response curves for Cd toxicity and EC50(168h) values were statistically evaluated for all sources of Cd to uncover possible differences among the toxicities of tested compounds. Total Cd content and its bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in L. minor after the exposure period were also determined to distinguish Cd bioaccumulation patterns with respect to different test compounds. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with lateral resolution of 200 mu m was employed in order to obtain two-dimensional maps of Cd spatial distribution in L. minor fronds. Our results show that GSH- and MPA-capped Cd-based QDs have similar toxicity for L. minor, but are significantly less toxic than CdCl2. However, both sources of Cd lead to similar patterns of Cd bioaccumulation and distribution in L. minor fronds. Our results are in line with previous reports that the main mediators of Cd toxicity and bioaccumulation in aquatic plants are Cd2+ ions dissolved from Cd-based QDs.