Cadmium and hexavalent chromium; laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS); lead, quantitative analyses; plant materials;PLASMA-MASS-SPECTROMETRY; NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY; ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK; GANNAN NAVEL ORANGE; POWDER SAMPLES; DOUBLE-PULSE; IN-SITU; MULTIVARIATE-ANALYSIS; ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS; ATOMIC-ABSORPTION
Bearing the merits of rapid, minimally destructive, and simultaneous multi-element analyses, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) shows its unique advantages in quantitative analyses of lead, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium in plant materials. However, the greatest challenge LIBS must confront is calibration. Various methods for calibration are proposed and put into effect; nevertheless, limits of detection acquired by LIBS are not acceptable when they are compared with the maximum residue limits drawn up by governments, and LIBS's performances in quantitative analyses are to be improved. This review summarizes recent studies of analyzing lead, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium in plant materials quantitatively by LIBS; weighs the strengths and weaknesses of their calibration methods; and recommends the combination of matrix-matched standards based on spiked sample materials and internal standard as well as chemometrics in complicated situations for calibration in LIBS. Selecting the emission line of the analyte, sample enrichment and signal enhancement are measures that this review puts forward to improve the performances of LIBS in calibration. These quantitative analyses of lead, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium in plant materials by LIBS provide an opportunity to be utilized in mapping distributions and remediation for soil and water, as well as supervision for agricultural products safety and pollution treatments.