Gunther, T. ; Millar, S. ; Wilsch, G.
LIBS; Mobile LIBS; Chemometrics; PLS-R; Building materials;CONCRETE STRUCTURES; CALIBRATION; REGRESSION; TUTORIAL; LIMIT
For the damage assessment of reinforced concrete structures the quantified ingress profiles of harmful species like chlorides, sulfates and alkali need to be determined. In order to provide on-site analysis of concrete a fast and reliable method is necessary. Low transition probabilities as well as the high ionization energies for chlorine and sulfur in the near-infrared range makes the detection of CI I and S I in low concentrations a difficult task. For the on-site analysis a mobile LIBS-system (lambda = 1064 nm, E-pulse <= 3 mJ, tau = 1.5 ns) with an automated scanner has been developed at BAM. Weak chlorine and sulfur signal intensities do not allow classical univariate analysis for process data derived from the mobile system. In order to improve the analytical performance multivariate analysis like PLS-R will be presented in this work. A comparison to standard univariate analysis will be carried out and results covering important parameters like detection and quantification limits (LOD, LOQ) as well as processing variances will be discussed (Allegrini and Olivieri, 2014 ; Ostra et al., 2008 ). It will be shown that for the first time a low cost mobile system is capable of providing reproducible chlorine and sulfur analysis on concrete by using a low sensitive system in combination with multivariate evaluation. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.