laser induced breakdown spectroscopy; EAST tokamak; temporal and spatial dynamics;INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY; TUNGSTEN PLASMA; MAGNETIC-FIELD; DIAGNOSTICS; DEPOSITION
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been developed to in situ diagnose the chemical compositions of the first wall in the EAST tokamak. However, the dynamics of optical emission of the key plasma-facing materials, such as tungsten, molybdenum and graphite have not been investigated in a laser produced plasma (LPP) under vacuum. In this work, the temporal and spatial dynamics of optical emission were investigated using the spectrometer with ICCD. Plasma was produced by an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with pulse duration of 6 ns. The results showed that the typical lifetime of LPP is less than 1.4 mu s, and the lifetime of ions is shorter than atoms at similar to 10(-6) mbar. Temporal features of optical emission showed that the optimized delay times for collecting spectra are from 100 to 400 ns which depended on the corresponding species. For spatial distribution, the maximum LIBS spectral intensity in plasma plume is obtained in the region from 1.5 to 3.0 mm above the sample surface. Moreover, the plasma expansion velocity involving the different species in a multicomponent system was measured for obtaining the proper timing (gate delay time and gate width) of the maximum emission intensity and for understanding the plasma expansion mechanism. The order of expansion velocities for various species is V-C+ > V-H > V-Si+ > V-Li > V-Mo > V-W. These results could be attributed to the plasma sheath acceleration and mass effect. In addition, an optimum signal-to-background ratio was investigated by varying both delay time and detecting position.