Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy; Explosive detection; Principal component analysis; Multivariate analysis;LIBS; CLASSIFICATION
We report the 'standoff detection' of explosives at 1 m in laboratory conditions, for the first time in India, using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopycombined with multivariate analysis. The spectra of a set of five secondary explosives were recorded at a distance of 1 m from the focusing as well as collection optics. The plasma characteristics viz., plasma temperature and electron density were estimated from Boltzmann statistics and Stark broadening respectively. Plasma temperature was estimated to be of the order of (10.9 +/- 2.1) x 10(3) K and electron density of (3.9 +/- 0.5) x 10(16) cm(-3). Using a ratiometric approach, C/H and H/O ratios showed a good correlation with the actual stoichiometric ratios and a partial identification success could be achieved. Finally employing principle component analysis, an excellent classification could be attained.