Benites, V. D. ; de Oliveira, P. P. A. ; Marangoni, B. S. ; Milori, D. M. B. P. ; Ranulfi, A. C. ; Senesi, G. S. ; Villas-Boas, P. R. ; Watanabe, A.
Soil; Plant; Fertilizer; DP LIBS analysis; Orthogonal geometry; Ablative energy;SIGNAL ENHANCEMENT; PLANT MATERIALS; PLASMA; LIBS; FERTILIZERS; ABLATION; SOILS; QUANTIFICATION; CONTAMINANTS; DEPENDENCE
A soil, a plant and a fertilizer sample were investigated by double-pulse (DP) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in orthogonal beam geometry using a reheating configuration. The DP-LIBS signal enhancement was evaluated with respect to the corresponding single-pulse (SP) LIBS as a function of the interpulse delay at various ablation energies. The maximum signal enhancement measured was 155-fold when low ablation energy (4 mJ) and an interpulse delay of 10 mu s were used. At high laser energies (>= 16 mJ) and interpulse delay of 0.6 mu s, the maximum signal enhancement was up to 3-fold. The effect of excitation energies and interpulse delays on emission line intensities was discussed in the various conditions used. The emission line enhancement measured for ionic lines was always higher than that of atomic lines. Plasma excitation temperature and electron density measured as a function of interpulse delays at various ablation energies were shown to be related to the emission line intensities. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.