Spectrum Analysis [E05.1962.867]; Laser-Induced Breakdown-Spectroscopy; Tissues [A10]; Optical Tissue Differentiation and Identification;NORMAL HUMAN ENAMEL; HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL; LINGUAL NERVE; MINERAL-COMPOSITION; FEEDBACK MECHANISM; PERIPHERAL-NERVES; CHEMICAL-ANALYSIS; LIBS PROSPECTS; SURGICAL LASER; DENTAL-CARIES
Compared to conventional techniques, Laser surgery procedures provide a number of advantages, but may be associated with an increased risk of iatrogenic damage to important anatomical structures. The type of tissue ablated in the focus spot is unknown. Laser-Induced Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to gain information about the type of material that is being ablated by the laser beam. This may form the basis for tissue selective laser surgery. In the present study, 7 different porcine tissues (cortical and cancellous bone, nerve, mucosa, enamel, dentine and pulp) from 6 animals were analyzed for their qualitative and semiquantitative molecular composition using LIBS. The so gathered data was used to first differentiate between the soft-and hard-tissues using a Calcium-Carbon emission based classifier. The tissues were then further classified using emission-ratio based analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The relatively higher concentration of Calcium in the hard tissues allows for an accurate first differentiation of soft-and hard tissues (100% sensitivity and specificity). The ratio based statistical dif-ferentiation approach yields results in the range from 65% (enamel-dentine pair) to 100% (nerve-pulp, cancellous bone-dentine, cancellous bone-enamel pairs) sensitivity and specificity.